Arthur Scargill

British trade-union leader. Elected president of the National Union of Miners (NUM) in 1981, he embarked on a collision course with the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher. The damaging miners' strike of 1984 - 1985 split the miners' movement. Born in Leeds, Scargill became a miner on leaving school and was soon a trade-union and(...)

Bill Hayden

Australian Labor politician and leader of the Australian Labor Party between 1977 and 1983, minister of foreign affairs from 1983 to 1988, and Australian governor general from 1989 to 1996. William George Hayden was born in Ipswich, Queensland, the son of an Irish-American sailor. He was educated at Brisbane State High School and served in(...)

Bobby Kennedy

1 9 2 5 - 1 9 6 8 Younger brother and close associate of John F Kennedy, Robert Kennedy trained as a lawyer, and entered politics as a legal advisor for Senate committees, where he liaised with Senator Joseph McCarthy, and also investigated the illegal activities of Jimmy Hoffa, the Teamsters' Union leader. In 1960(...)

David Ben-Gurion

1 8 8 6 - 1 9 7 3 Israeli statesman and socialist politician. He was one of the founders of the state of Israel and the country's first prime minister (1948–53) - and again from 1955 to 1963. He retired from politics in 1970 but remained a lasting symbol of the Israeli state. He was(...)

Edward Heath

1 9 1 6 - 2 0 0 5 Edward Richard George Heath was born at Broadstairs, Kent, in 1916 and was educated at Chatham House Grammar School, Ramsgate, and Balliol College, Oxford. At university he was active in Conservative politics, and president of the Oxford Union. During World War II he served in the Royal(...)

Jeremy Thorpe

Joh Bjelke-Petersen

1 9 1 1 - 2 0 0 5 Johannes ("Joh") Bjelke-Petersen was an Australian right-wing politician, leader of the Queensland National Party (QNP) and premier of Queensland between 1968 and 1987. Bjelke-Petersen was born in New Zealand, the son of a Danish Lutheran minister. He worked as a peanut farmer before entering the Queensland(...)

Robert Muldoon

1 9 2 1 - 1 9 9 2 New Zealand National Party right-of-centre politician and NZ prime minister from 1975 to 1984. Nicknamed "''Piggy'' Muldoon" by his detractors, he pursued austere economic policies such as a wage-and-price policy to control inflation, sought to introduce curbs on trade unions, was a vigorous supporter of the(...)