01 – Two women are trampled to death and 140 severely injured as crowds dispersing after the traditional New Year celebrations in Trafalgar Square, London. stampede.
02 – British television comedy star Dick Emery dies, aged 63.
06 – Unemployment in the UK reaches 3,096,997 (13.3% of the workforce).
07 – Unemployment total in the USA reaches 12 million.
07 – The National Trust buys Fountains Abbey in North Yorkshire for £191,000.
07 – Australia regains the Ashes in the final Test against England at Sydney, having won two matches, lost one and drawn two.
13 – The American Medical Association calls for a ban on boxing after new evidence suggests that chronic brain damage is prevalent in fighters.
14 – Armed police ambush a car in Kensington, London, shooting and wounding a passenger, Stephen Waldorf. They later apologise stating that this was a case of mistaken identity.
16 – Judge William Doyle is shot dead by two Provisional IRA gunmen in the Malone Road area of Belfast.
16 – A Turkish Boeing 727 airliner crashes while landing at Ankara, killing 47 of the 60 passengers and crew.
18 – South Africa re-imposes direct rule on Namibia.
22 – Tennis star Bjorn Borg takes early retirement at the grand old age of 26.
24 – 63 Red Brigade terrorists are sentenced in Rome to terms of imprisonment on 200 charges including 17 murders, 11 attempted murders and four kidnappings committed between 1977 and 1980. 32 life sentences are imposed.
25 – Convicted World War II Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie, 69, – known as “The butcher of Lyon” – is arrested in La Paz, Bolivia.
28 – Billy Fury dies from a heart attack, aged 41. Though retired at the time of his death, he was planning a comeback.
29 – An oil rig being towed across Singapore Harbour crashes into a cable car line causing two cars to drop 250 feet into the water, killing seven people.
31 – Drivers and front-seat passengers in the UK must wear seatbelts under a new law that comes into force at midnight.
03 – In Australia, Bob Hawke takes over as leader of the Labor Party as an election is called.
03 One woman dies and four people are seriously injured when the rear two coaches of an Aberdeen-Inverness train are derailed near Elgin in Scotland.
03 – Britain’s unemployment figures reached 3,224,714 – a new record.
04 – Singer Karen Carpenter dies in California, aged 32. The coroner lists her cause of death as “heartbeat irregularities brought on by chemical imbalances associated with Anorexia” (b. 2 March 1950).
05 – 69-year-old Nazi war criminal and former Gestapo commandant Klaus Barbie – known as the ‘Butcher of Lyon’ – is flown to France to face charges after being extradited from Bolivia.
08 – Giovanni Vigliotto is found guilty of bigamy after admitting to marrying more than 105 women in 33 years – spreading his activities around the US and a dozen other countries. He is arrested after making off with $36,000 after just two weeks of marriage to his latest victim. He is sentenced in April to 28 years in prison for fraud and six for bigamy.
08 – 1981 Derby winner Shergar – one of the most valuable racehorses in the world – is stolen by an armed gang from the Aga Khan’s stud farm in County Kildare, Ireland. The theft is believed to have been carried out by the Provisional IRA. A ransom was demanded (reputedly around £5 million) which wasn’t paid. Shergar is believed to have been shot and killed, though his body was never found.
11 – An inquiry into the Beirut massacre of Palestinian refugees in September 1982 results in the resignation of Ariel Sharon, Israeli defence minister.
13 – A cinema in Turin, Italy, is destroyed by fire with the loss of 64 lives.
13 – Three cable cars crash at a ski resort in the Val d’Aosta (Italy), killing ten people.
15 – The Lebanese government regains control of Beirut.
16 – 72 perish in Australian “Ash Wednesday” bush fires. 2,590 square miles of bush land is destroyed. 350,000 farm animals are also killed.
16 – Magistrates jail 36 women for breaches of the peace at Greenham Common air base.
20 – Election riots in the Indian state of Assam cause the deaths of between 800 and 1,000 people.
25 – US dramatist Tennessee Williams dies in New York when he accidentally swallows a plastic bottle cap.
01 – The “Swatch Watch” is introduced in Zurich by Swiss company Asuag-SSH. The revolution in watch production will shift one million units within a year, 50 million within five years, and well over 200 million by the end of the century.
02 – The Compact Disc digital audio system is launched in Britain. A five-inch disc can contain up to an hour of music, reproduced as sound by a laser beam.
03 – A Cleveland Hell’s Angel tells a Senate Judiciary Panel that the California Angels have had a contract on the life of Rolling Stones vocalist Mick Jagger since the 1969 Altamont convert, after which a biker was jailed for killing an audience member.
03 – Hergé (real name Georges Remi), the creator of Tintin, dies at Saint-Luc of anaemia, aged 75.
03 – Devastating floods occur in South Australia.
04 – Having phoned a TV station in Jacksonville, Alabama, to say that he intends to set fire to himself, a very drunk Cecil Andrews proceeds to do just that, live on television. He suffers burns on over 50% of his body and is listed in serious condition Saturday at the University of Alabama-Birmingham Hospital.
06 – In West Germany, the Green Party wins 24 seats in the election.
07 – A coal pit near the town of Eregli in Turkey explodes, with the loss of 97 lives.
08 – US President Reagan denounces the Soviet Union by saying that it is “the focus of evil in a modern world.” The Soviets respond by saying Reagan has a “pathological hatred of communism and socialism”.
11 – Bob Hawke becomes the Australian Prime Minister in the second-largest Labor victory in the history of Federal politics. Malcolm Fraser resigns as Leader of the Opposition expressing regret at the election loss and saying, “past Prime Ministers should not hang around . . . A great effort is going to be required of all of you. The Liberal Party must win at the next election or else the socialist onslaught will never be turned”.
25 – Michael Jackson performs his ‘Moonwalk’ on television for the very first time at the ‘Motown 25’ ceremony.
26 – Professor Anthony Blunt, the Soviet spy and former art adviser to the Queen, dies aged 75.
29 – First laptop computer is launched in the US.
01 – Gloria Stavers, editor, writer and photographer of the teen magazine 16 – dies of cancer aged 51.
01 – 100,000 CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament) protesters join hands to form a 14-mile human chain stretching from Greenham Common to Burghfield Ordnance factory in Britain. Similar protests take place in Italy, the Netherlands, and West Germany.
02 – Oxford wins the 129th Boat Race beating Cambridge for the eighth successive year and by four and a half lengths.
04 – Second Space Shuttle, Challenger, makes a successful maiden voyage, which includes the first US spacewalk in nine years.
04 – About £7 million in used notes is stolen by a gang of six from the headquarters of Security Express near Liverpool Street station in London. A reward of £500,000 is offered.
04 – Silent movie legend Gloria Swanson passes away in New York, aged 86.
05 – Danny Rapp, the former lead singer of Danny And The Juniors, is found dead of an apparent suicide.
05 – 47 Soviet diplomats and officials are expelled from France after being accused of spying.
06 – A £30,000 bank raid in Bristol in which a policeman is shot and injured ends after a 90-mile chase along the M4. A gunman is also shot during the raid.
11 – A US presidential panel recommends the installation of 100 ICBM missiles in silos in Wyoming and Nebraska, as well as the development of the single-warhead ‘Midgetman’ missiles.
12 – Harold Washington becomes Chicago’s first black mayor after a narrow victory over his Republican opponent.
14 – Pete Farndon, the bass player of the British rock group, The Pretenders, dies of a drug overdose. He is found dead in his bath.
14 – A Spitfire fighter plane from WWII is sold for £260,000.
17 – Felix Pappalardi of American heavy rock band Mountain is shot dead in his New York apartment by Gail Collins, his wife and songwriting partner. He is 43.
18 – A suicide car bomb destroys the US embassy in Beirut, killing over 60 people. Pro-Iranian terrorists are blamed.
20 – The USSR launches Soyuz T-8 with three cosmonauts aboard. It fails to dock with Salyut 7 and returns to Earth.
21 – British £1 coin enters circulation for the first time. Notwithstanding its gilded appearance, the new coin has no gold in it. It is made of nickel-brass (a mixture of copper, nickel and zinc).
24 – Austrian chancellor Dr Bruno Kreisky resigns after 13 years in office.
25 – German magazine Stern begins to serialise 60 volumes of Adolf Hitler’s diaries (pictured).
29 – The Argentina Junta officially declares that the many thousands of missing persons reported since the 1970s must be considered dead.
30 – Blues legend Muddy Waters dies of a heart attack in his Chicago home, aged 68.
01 – Police break up demonstrations in 20 Polish cities.
04 – President Reagan admits that the Contra terrorists fighting the left-wing Sandinista government in Nicaragua have been receiving covert aid from the CIA, but he insists they are “freedom fighters”.
04 – In Bangladesh, many people die and 60,000 are made homeless after widespread floods.
05 – Pilot Richard Boddy miraculously lands a Lockheed L-1011 at Miami airport in Florida (USA) after both engines fail.
06 – The Hitler Diaries are revealed as fakes after fooling historians and editors. The diaries – published in Stern magazine (pictured) – had been cleverly faked by Konrad Kujau.
12 – Owing more than $1 million, Meat Loaf is declared bankrupt in New York City.
16 – DJ Rick Sommers of WBLI in Long Island, New York, finds himself unwittingly embroiled in a hostage situation when a former teacher kidnaps 12 children and uses Sommers as an “on air” go-between.
17 – Israel and Lebanon agree on the withdrawal of Israeli troops.
19 – Missing barrels of dioxin from the chemical plant at Seveso are found in southern France.
20 – A car bomb kills 17 people and injures more than 190 in Pretoria, South Africa. The outlawed anti-apartheid group the African National Congress (ANC) is blamed for the attack.
24 – US Congress approves spending of $625 million on the research and development of MX missiles.
25 – In Egypt, a ferry on the Nile catches fire. More than 300 people die.
25 – Return of the Jedi grosses $6.2 million (US) on its opening day.
03 – Acutely paranoid due to drug abuse, Jim Gordon – rock drummer and co-writer of Eric Clapton‘s Layla – beats his mother to death with a hammer.
09 – Margaret Thatcher‘s second election victory is one of the most decisive in post-war Britain. Mrs Thatcher sees her majority rise to 144 seats. In terms of share of the vote, Labour only manages to come in ahead of the Alliance in their worst election performance since 1918.
13 – After a journey of 11 years, Pioneer 10 crosses the orbit of Neptune and leaves the solar system – the first spacecraft to travel beyond known planets.
16 – Yuri Andropov is elected Soviet President.
16/23 – The Pope returns to his native Poland, denounces the constrictions of the governing regime, meets Lech Walesa and states that the right to join a free trade union is “given by the creator”.
18 – Dr Sally Ride is the first US woman in space as she blasts off aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger. The shuttle returns safely on 24 June.
27 – USSR launches Soyuz T-9 with two cosmonauts aboard. It docks with the space station Salyut 7.
29 – The Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York City, is designated a landmark site by the city’s Landmarks Preservation Commission.
12 – Chris Wood, the former saxophone player with Traffic, dies of liver failure, aged 39.
13 – The House of Commons votes against the restoration of the death penalty by an unexpectedly large majority.
14 – The General Synod of the Church of England votes to allow divorced people to remarry in church provided certain conditions are met.
16 – A Sikorski S61 helicopter on a routine shuttle between Penzance and the Scilly Isles crashes into the sea killing 20 people. Six are rescued, including the pilot and co-pilot.
19 – The fossilised remains of a new breed of carnivorous dinosaur is discovered in a clay pit in Surrey, England.
21 – Following a rained-out free concert by Diana Ross in Central Park in New York, gangs of young men swarm through the park and its neighbouring blocks, assaulting and robbing those they encounter. Diners at the Tavern on the Green are stabbed and robbed by dozens of teenagers in “the night Central Park got mugged”.
21 – Poland ends martial law after 19 months.
24 – At least 183 people die in the mid-west and south of the United States in a 15-day heatwave.
27 – More than 100 people die during race riots in Sri Lanka between the Sinhalese and Tamil communities, following the Tamil’s demand for a separate state.
29 – British actor David Niven dies in Geneva, aged 73.
29 – Judge Rocco Chinnici, 58, a prominent anti-Mafia investigator, is murdered in Palermo by a car bomb which also kills two of his bodyguards, a doorman and 10 passers-by.
31 – Two riders, Norman Brown of Ulster and Peter Huber of Switzerland crash and die in the British Motorcycling Grand Prix at Silverstone.
02 – Legendary Motown bassist James Jamerson dies in USC County Hospital, Los Angeles, of complications arising from cirrhosis of the liver, heart failure and pneumonia.
04 – Bettino Craxi becomes Italy’s first Socialist Premier since 1946.
04 – Four Provisional IRA members are jailed for life at Belfast Crown Court for their part in the murders of a part-time Ulster Defence Regiment soldier and a prison governor. 22 other people are given jail sentences of between three years and life. The convictions result from information provided by “supergrass” Christopher Black.
04 – Alison Streeter, 18, becomes the first British woman to swim the English Channel both ways non-stop. She does it in 21 hours 16 minutes.
04 – Unemployment in the UK rises to 3,231,720 – almost one in seven of the workforce.
05 – Texan judge Pat McDowell sentences David Crosby to five years in jail for a 1982 drugs and firearms offence.
06 – A Spanish supertanker carrying 250,000 tons of crude oil catches fire and splits apart 70 miles northwest of Cape Town. Two crewmen are killed, and a 20-mile oil slick threatens the coast.
06 – US sends aircraft to support Chad against Libyan-backed rebels.
15 – US admits shielding former Nazi Gestapo chief Klaus Barbie, 69, the “butcher of Lyon,” wanted in France for war crimes.
16 – Actress Carrie Fisher marries singer Paul Simon in a traditional Jewish ceremony in the singer’s apartment overlooking Central Park in New York City.
18 – Radio Caroline, operating from a converted trawler in the North Sea, resumes broadcasting.
21 – Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino is assassinated at Manila Airport just minutes after his return from exile in the US.
24 – Two months after their marriage, 25-year-old Shawn Lewis – the fifth wife of Jerry Lee Lewis – is found dead in their Mississippi home from an accidental overdose of prescribed drugs.
30 – NASA launches the space shuttle Challenger on a night-time launch with five astronauts aboard. It returns safely, also at night, on 5 September.
01 – Flight 007, a Korean Airlines passenger flight, is shot down by a Russian fighter plane over Soviet airspace. All 269 people on board are killed. The Korean airliner, a Boeing 747, left Anchorage, Alaska, bound for Seoul, Korea, on a course south and west which would take it across Japan. For reasons as yet unknown, the 747 was flying a course further to the west than it was supposed to fly – a course which took it into Soviet airspace. The Soviets tracked this plane for two and a half hours while it flew a straight-line course at 30 to 35,000 feet. Only civilian airliners fly in such a manner. At one point, the Korean pilot gave Japanese air control his position as east of Hokkaido, Japan, showing that he was unaware they were off course by more than a hundred miles.
03 – Civil war breaks out in Lebanon following Israeli withdrawal. President Reagan orders an amphibious force to Lebanon.
05 – The US imposes light sanctions against the USSR (including suspension of negotiations for a US embassy in Kiev) over the Soviet downing of a South Korean passenger plane on September 1.
08 – Robert Hutyra, a cyclist from Czechoslovakia, floats his family of four – plus his bicycle – over the Iron Curtain to freedom using an air balloon made of stitched-together raincoats filled with helium.
09 – Medicare, the Federal Government’s publicly funded national health scheme, is launched in Australia. The first national health scheme since the Whitlam Government introduced Medibank, the scheme will be funded by a levy based on 1 per cent of gross income with variations for large families and limited exemptions.
12 – In the second-largest theft in US history, an employee of Wells Fargo makes off with $7 million in cash from a company warehouse in Connecticut.
15 – Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin resigns and is succeeded by Yitzhak Shamir on Oct 10th.
17 – Vanessa Williams becomes the first black Miss America.
20 – US Congress authorises Marines to remain in Lebanon for another 18 months.
23 – The Australia II syndicate wins the America’s Cup. After being bolted down in Newport for 132 years, the cup will now be displayed half a world away at the Perth Yacht Club. Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke declares the day “as good as a public holiday”.
25 – 38 IRA prisoners escape from the Maze top security prison in Belfast. One prison officer is killed and another seriously injured during the mass break-out of Republican inmates.
26 – A ceasefire is agreed to in Lebanon.
27 – At his home in St Catherine’s (Jamaica), reggae artist Prince Far I is shot dead by gunmen.
02 – Neil Kinnock is elected leader of the British Labour Party in place of resigning Michael Foot.
05 – Lech Walesa, leader of the Polish trade union Solidarity, is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
10 – British actor Ralph Richardson dies, aged 80.
13 – The Grenadian Army, controlled by former Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard, seizes power in a bloody coup. The severity of the violence, coupled with Coard’s hard-line Marxism, causes deep concern among neighbouring Caribbean nations, as well as in Washington, D.C. The presence of nearly 1,000 American medical students in Grenada causes added concern.
14 – Cecil Parkinson resigns as British Secretary of State for Trade after revelations by his former secretary that she is expecting his child.
20 – Legendary country guitarist/songwriter Merle Travis dies of a heart attack in Nashville, Tennesse, aged 65.
20 – The left-wing military coup in Grenada deposes prime minister Maurice Bishop. The prime minister and three other ministers are shot dead by troops.
22 – More than 250,000 people attend a rally protesting against nuclear weapons organised by CND in central London. Similar protests take place in Belgium, the Netherlands, France and the US.
23 – A truck loaded with explosives destroys the peacekeeping force building in Beirut (Lebanon), killing 241 US Marines and 58 French paratroopers.
25 – The United States invades the island of Grenada to depose the new Soviet-aligned government at the request of the Governor-General (pictured above). The initial assault (code-named ‘Operation Urgent Fury’) consists of some 1,200 US Marines and 700 Army Rangers who are met by stiff resistance from the Grenadian army and Cuban military units on the island. Heavy fighting continues for several days, but as the invasion force grows to more than 7,000, the defenders either surrender or flee into the mountains. Scattered fighting continues as US troops hunt down stragglers, but for the most part, the island quickly falls under American control. The troops evacuate 1,100 US citizens, and by mid-December, US combat forces return home, and a pro-American government takes power.
30 – 2,000 people die as earthquake ravages Eastern Turkey.
30 – In the Argentine elections, a civilian government is chosen for the first time in a decade.
31 – American TV news presenter Christine Craft – who was awarded $500,00 in a recent sex discrimination case – sees her award overturned when a Federal judge rules that her employers were justified in sacking her because she was “too informal, too opinionated and lacking in warmth”.
02 – Hostilities end in Grenada with eighteen US soldiers dead and 115 wounded.
03 – South Africa extends constitutional and political rights to Indians and coloureds, but no concessions are granted to the country’s 20 million blacks.
03 – Jesse Jackson announces his intention to run as Democratic Presidential candidate. He is the first African-American to do so.
04 – A truck loaded with explosives explodes at Israeli HQ in Tyre, Lebanon, killing 39 people.
04 – Dennis Nilson is sentenced to life imprisonment for killing and dismembering 15 young women in Muswell Hill and Cricklewood, London.
09 – Brewing king Alfred Heineken is kidnapped in Amsterdam by three armed and masked men.
10 – Microsoft announces “Windows 1.0”, an extension of the MS-DOS operating system that will provide an Apple Macintosh-style graphical operating environment for IBM-compatible PC users. Bill Gates wants to call it “Interface Manager” but is persuaded against it. It is planned to go on sale in 1984 but doesn’t materialise in shops until November 1985.
12 – West Belfast MP Gerry Adams is elected President of Sinn Fein.
14 – The first of 160 Cruise Missiles are delivered from the US to the Greenham Common airbase in the UK. In response, the USSR withdraws from arms limitation negotiations.
15 – Turkish Cypriots declare their sector in Cyprus to be independent, but only Turkey recognises this.
17 – An IRA bomb kills six and injures 100 outside Harrods in Knightsbridge, London.
19 – Former bass player with Badfinger, Tom Evans, is found hanged at his home in Surrey (UK). He is 36.
22/23 – Breakdown of US-USSR arms reduction talks.
26 – Six robbers break into the Brink’s-MAT warehouse at Heathrow Airport, London, expecting to find £3 million and escape with £26 million worth of gold, diamonds, and cash. The media dubs it “the crime of the century” (pictured).
28 – Six astronauts, including a West German, are launched in the space shuttle, returning 10 days later.
30 – Alfred Heineken, head of the Dutch brewery bearing his family name, is freed after being kidnapped on 9 November.
30 – ASIS (Australian Secret Intelligence Service) agents bungle a raid on the Sheraton Hotel in Melbourne, Australia. The planned operation was to involve the “rescue” of two ASIS agents being held hostage in of the Sheraton’s rooms. Other ASIS personnel were then supposed to free the hostages by ‘subterfuge and deception’. No inconvenience to the public was anticipated or intended. However, the exercise was interrupted by the hotel manager. The five ASIS operatives did not stop the operation.
03 – Syrian forces near Beirut fire on US reconnaissance planes, prompting an attack from US warplanes the following day.
04 – Two IRA gunmen – Brian Campbell and Colm McGirr – are shot dead in an SAS ambush near Coalisland, County Tyrone in Northern Ireland.
06 – The first heart and lung transplant operation to be performed in Britain is successfully carried out when Swedish journalist, Lars Ljungberg, receives the organs of a woman from the south of England who died yesterday. Mr Ljungberg survives for 13 days after the operation.
06 – In a London auction, a world record price of £7,400,000 is realised for a 12th century Gospels of Henry the Lion manuscript.
06 – Anthony Black, an employee of Brink’s-MAT Ltd., is charged by Scotland Yard with involvement in the theft of cash, gold, diamonds and platinum from Heathrow, the largest heist in British history.
07 – Two Spanish aircraft collide in thick fog on the main runway of Madrid Airport, killing 92 people. A DC9 of Aviaco moves into the path of an Iberian Boeing 727, which is taking off.
07 – In Belfast, the Provisional IRA murders Edgar Graham, 29, a leading Official Unionist member of the Northern Ireland Assembly.
07 – Sir Keith Holyoake, former Governor-General and Prime Minister of New Zealand, dies aged 79.
10 – An explosion rips a 15-foot hole in the perimeter wall of the Royal Artillery Barracks at Woolwich in London, injuring five people. The IRA claims responsibility.
10 – Madonna achieves her first US Top 40 single with Holiday, which peaks at #16.
11 – 25,000 women demonstrators surround Greenham Common military base in Berkshire. Groups of them attack the perimeter fence, pulling it down in places and cutting holes in it. Two policemen are injured in struggles and 60 women are arrested.
13 – A Provisional IRA bomb containing 10lb of explosives left just off Kensington High Street in London is partially destroyed by controlled detonation. Another bomb goes off in a telephone kiosk in Oxford Street, and a second is found in another kiosk nearby.
14 – New photographs from the Very Large Array radio telescope in New Mexico reveal a “black hole”, 2.6 times the mass of the Sun, at the heart of the Milky Way.
16 – Supermarket executive Don Tidey is rescued unharmed by police and soldiers near Ballinamore, Co Leitrim, after being held by IRA kidnappers for 23 days. An Irish policeman and a soldier are killed during the rescue, with another policeman and soldier injured. Four terrorists are captured, of whom three are wounded.
17 – Another IRA car bomb kills six people and injures 91 outside Harrods department store in London.
18 – Ex-President Gerald Ford appears in the soap opera Dynasty.
18 – James Brown‘s guitarist Jimmy “Chank” Nolan dies at the age of 47.
20 – Britain’s first heart and lung transplant patient, Lars Ljungberg, dies 14 days after the operation as a result of failure of kidneys and other organs.
23 – British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher pays a six-hour visit to police and troops in Northern Ireland.
25 – Spanish painter Joan Miró dies aged 90.
26 – Violet Carson, the actress who played Ena Sharples on Coronation Street, dies aged 85.
28 – Dennis Wilson, the only real surfing enthusiast among The Beach Boys, drowns during an incautious dip in the Pacific Ocean from his boat moored in Marina del Rey, California. He is 39.
Also this year . . .
- Early morning television begins in Britain with BBC’s Breakfast Time followed a month later by ITV’s breakfast television service TV-AM.
- Cellular phone network starts in USA.
- Wheel-clamping of illegally parked cars begins in London.
- EFTPOS banking launched in Australia by Westpac.
- ‘Kiwi’ wins Melbourne Cup.
- Champion golfer Jack Newton loses arm in airport accident.
- Time magazine names ‘the computer‘ as “Man of the Year.”.
Quote of the year
“Balmain boys don’t cry”
Neville Wran, New South Wales’ Premier, Australia.